The metabolites were classified into various groups Table 1 , although this classification is not unambiguous; e. The process of production involves wet milling of the cereal, wet sieving, partial gelatinization of the slurry, sugar addition and bottling Adejuyitan et al. Several studies show strong association between DON and outbreaks of acute diseases such as gastrointestinal upset, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain and diarrhea after red mold intoxication in India and China, Korea, and rural Japan WHO, ; Kpodo et al. In addition, OTA has been suggested as an aetiological agent to interstitial nephritis, urothelial, and testicle tumors in human Anli and Alkis, The identification was based essentially on morphological and biochemical reactions. Moench, is known under a variety of names: Kunu is good for women that have reached the stage of menopause as it helps them relax their muscles.

Among the emerging toxins, beauvericin and sterigmatocystin were the most frequently occurring, while citrinin was detected only in one sample, at a lower value Kunzig, Robert April SORGHUM Sorghum is a genus with many species and subspecies, and there are several types of sorghum, including grain sorghums, grass sorghums for pasture and hay , sweet sorghums for syrups , and Broomcorn. In addition, OTA also occurs in wheat, barley, rye, corn, soy, peanuts, rice, oats, and cassava flour Zain, ; CAST, and in several food of animal origins Peraica et al. The values measured in this work are comparable with AFs contamination of 0. Thus, a combination of legumes with grains forms a well-balanced diet for vegetarians. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop.

The values measured in this work are comparable with AFs contamination of 0. Species liherature as ginger, black pepper, garlic, red pepper and clover are commonly added as flavor and taste improver.

literature review on kunun zaki

The iunun of crude protein found in grain is measured as the grain crude protein concentration. DON exposure has been linked to incidences of acute gastrointestinal diseases, kidney problems and immunosuppressive in animals Pestka et al. Contamination of ZEA occurring mainly in cereals such as maize, wheat, and barley fields, but also in sorghum, soybean, oats, hay, rice, rye, sesame seed and silages Zinedine et al.


All plates were incubated for 48hrs at C. Items considered food may be sought from plants, animals or other categories such as fungus and fermented products Jango-cohen, Ochratoxin A toxin has been shown to be weakly mutagenic by its induction of oxidative DNA damage Bennett and Kunin, Fungal colonies were isolated using a sterile pin point inoculation on the agar and incubated at ambient temperature for 3 days.

The other part of the paste regiew then added to this mixture and it is stirred some more.

Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes. Sterigmatocystin is an intermediary metabolite of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, being the penultimate precursor of aflatoxin B1. There is a need to guarantee an efficient system for monitoring the quality and safety of rice and rice products along the value chain, both for national consumption and for the global trade. In the United States it is usually referred to as milo or milo-maize Table 1.

Literature review on kunun zaki

Also found to reduce the milk in dairy cattle Akande et al. Adeyemi and Umar, 1. It has immense social, economic,nutritional and medical benefits to numerous consumers, the sales and consumption of this locally made beverage is high due to the high cost of other non alcoholic drink.

Finely ground grains or high-tannin grains are less palatable to cattle.

Literature review of kunu zaki

Molecular structures of Fumonisin B1 and B2 Fumonisins litfrature been found to produce a broad range of pathological effects in mammals Shephard et al. In each market, ten 10 samples of kunnu were collected from ten different sellers. Incidence of aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes and ochratoxins in Nigerian foods and possible intervention kunin. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Fate of mycotoxins in two popular traditional cereal-based beverages kunu-zaki and pito from rural Nigeria.


literature review on kunun zaki

The process of production involves wet milling of the cereal, wet sieving, partial gelatinization of the slurry, sugar addition and bottling Adejuyitan et al. For spiking experiments, 0. Thus, a total of four samples were analysed. The occurrence of the wide generation of mycotoxigenic fungi could be attributed to the unhygenic condition of preparation and the use of contaminated raw materials and utensils Ayo et al. Gert, but grains are always harvested during the rainy season, a best period for yeast and mould which favors contamination by fungi and subsequent mycotoxin contamination.

It was shown that maize grain for example is contaminated by Fusarium sp. The presence of the amount of sanitary indicator organisms in foods are of importance in the assessment of the quality and safety of foods.

Non-alcoholic beverages play a very important role in the dietary pattern of people literatuer developing countries like Nigeria. Further, kubun incidence of aflatoxins in maize are a perennial threat in warm and humid subtropical and tropical conditions Kaaya and Kyamuhangire, Sterigmatocystin was occasionally reported to occur in green coffee beans, spices, nuts and beer EFSA A major obstacle in the consumption of Kunu is the outbreak of listeriosis, a food borne disease called listeriosis, is caused by listeria monocytogenes, a gram positive, facultative anaerobe which occurs singly or in pairs, also in short chains.

literature review on kunun zaki

A recent report by the FAO on mycotoxins shows over countries worldwide had set regulatory limits on allowable mycotoxins levels in human and animal feeds Warth, ,unun al.