Political Science


Although direct molecular typing from clinical material has been well-established for EVs [ 8 , 42 – 44 ], nine countries reported that they only characterised culture-positive EVs. Severe respiratory illness associated with enterovirus D68 – Missouri and Illinois, Systematic community- and hospital-based surveillance for enterovirus-D68 in three Canadian provinces, August to December Therefore, stool samples are typically used for poliovirus surveillance. We would also like to acknowledge all the individuals who responded the questionnaire on behalf of their country: The previous investigation has suggested that EV-D68 infections might reflect a 2- to 3-year epidemic cycle, as also previously shown for other EV types [ 13 , 35 ].

Open in a separate window. Polioviruses, like most other EVs, are transmitted mostly via the faecal—oral route [ 5 ]. National laboratory offers any EV testing. Species B EVs are the main causes of aseptic meningitis in Europe [ 14 – 16 ]. Two cases of acute severe flaccid myelitis associated with enterovirus D68 infection in children, Norway, autumn Most performed typing of EV-positive samples obtained from individuals with neurological infections, but only half of the countries included respiratory infections, HFMD, myocarditis, haemorrhagic conjunctivitis and post-mortem investigations in their laboratory-based EV surveillance.

Enterovirus D68: a clinically important respiratory enterovirus.

Reporting system for EV-D Arch Pathol Lab Med. Guidelines enterovirsu enterovirus surveillance in support of the Polio Eradication Initiate. Curr Opin Infect Dis. Therefore, stool samples are typically used for poliovirus surveillance. A recent study from the United Kingdom showed an incidence of 3.

National guidance on testing should consider inclusion of respiratory and stool samples in addition to CSF samples for EV identification and characterisation in case of suspected neurological infections. According to our survey, only five countries consider inclusion of CSF, respiratory and stool samples for EV testing in case of neurological infection at the national level; this is a result which needs further improvement since testing of stool and respiratory samples substantially enhances the sensitivity of EV-A71 and EV-D68 detection associated with neurological disease.


However, no critical mismatches were observed within the end of the x68 or probes used. Sensitive, seminested PCR amplification of VP1 sequences for direct identification of all enterovirhs serotypes from original clinical specimens.

enterovirus d68 essay

Europe, viral infections, respiratory infections, viral encephalitis, viral meningitis, laboratory surveillance, laboratory methods, molecular typing. It is of concern that 11 countries had typed fewer than 50 EV-positive samples. We would also like to acknowledge all the individuals who responded the questionnaire on behalf of their country: Twenty-nine countries responded; 26 conducted laboratory-based non-polio EV surveillance, and 24 included neurological infections in their surveillance.

Support Center Support Center. A novel outbreak enterovirus D68 strain associated with acute flaccid myelitis cases in the USA Poliovirus Laboratory Based Surveillance: The use of appropriate testing methodologies is of the greatest importance for any laboratory-based surveillance system.

Polioviruses, like most other EVs, are transmitted mostly via the faecal—oral route [ 5 ]. We also calculated the proportion of EV-positive samples typed perinhabitants for the countries that were able to provide these data. Continued seasonal circulation of enterovirus D68 in the Netherlands, Furthermore, molecular typing of EV-positive samples has also traditionally focused on species B EVs.


Enterovirus D68 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays – words

Although more efficient molecular detection techniques have mostly replaced these slow and laborious cell culture methods easay primary diagnostic laboratories, virus isolation still plays a crucial role in polio surveillance and all polio cases are confirmed by in vitro cell culture [ 24 – 26 ].


This is likely to be an insufficient number, taking into account the large variety of circulating EV types [ 8 ].

The main principal public health needs for non-polio EV surveillance include outbreak detection and response, and monitoring of EV types associated with severe disease [ 26 ].

The association of recombination events in the founding and emergence enterovirys subgenogroup evolutionary lineages of human enterovirus Notes Conflict of interest: Participation in regular external quality control programmes helps laboratories to identify gaps in detection capabilities.

enterovirus d68 essay

Circulation of EV-A71 has also been documented in Europe [ 7 – 13 ]. A enterovjrus of 19 countries reported that they used sequencing-based methods for non-polio EV typing, while neutralisation assay was used by 16 countries.

Enterovirus D a clinically important respiratory enterovirus.

Facts about influenza surveillance. Improved capacity for sequencing would be important not only in view of EV surveillance, but also in view of poliovirus eradication and other pathogen surveillance programmes.

This study was mainly based on enrerovirus EV surveillance and detection activities performed within the national public health institutions; we have not collected information on laboratory capacities and performances at the sub-national level. This means that the antiserum pools used for EV typing will only be available via commercial route in the near future.

The National Coordinators were asked to assign a person or persons from their country to fill in the survey from the national perspective. National laboratory capability for EV characterisation.

enterovirus d68 essay

Test all respiratory samples for EVs.