Journal of Educational Research, 78 , 97— Cooper and colleagues’ comparison of homework with no homework indicates that the average student in a class in which appropriate homework was assigned would score 23 percentile points higher on tests of the knowledge addressed in that class than the average student in a class in which homework was not assigned. Educational Researcher, 25 8 , 27— Synthesis of research on homework. Most research only supports homework for middle and high school students Cooper a; Kohn School Psychology Review, 17 4 , —
Instead, educators should combine research-based generalizations, research from related areas, and their own professional judgment based on firsthand experience to develop specific practices and make adjustments as necessary. Synthesis Studies on Homework Synthesis Study. The Cooper a study included more than empirical research reports, and the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study included about 50 empirical research reports. Some studies have reported minimal positive effects or even negative effects for parental involvement. Requesting Permission For photocopy , electronic and online access , and republication requests , go to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Students are spending too much time completing homework assignments instead of playing outside or enjoying leisure activities, which teach and enhance important life skills.
In his early meta-analysis, Cooper a reported the following effect sizes p. As educators, the amount, gersus, and the purpose should be considered prior to assigning homework.
Special Topic / The Case For and Against Homework
Synthesis Studies on Homework Synthesis Study. Homework provides practice with content, concepts, and skills taught at school by the teacher. Instead, educators should combine research-based generalizations, research from related areas, and their own professional judgment based on firsthand experience to develop specific practices and make adjustments as hokework.
The end of homework: Another question regarding homework is the extent to which schools should involve parents. Teachers must carefully plan and assign homework in a way that maximizes the potential for student success see Research-Based Homework Guidelines.
Homework or No Homework
The correlation between homework and student achievement is inconsistent. Educational Leadership, 41 84— For students in the earliest gradesit should foster positive attitudes, habits, and character traits; permit appropriate parent involvement; and reinforce learning of simple skills introduced in class.
Some students are given hours of work while other students are assigned little or no work to be done at home. Please share your experiences in the comment section below. In 6th grade and beyondit should play an important role in improving standardized test scores and grades.
Educational Leadership, 47 385— However, research suggests that homework is less effective if it is used to teach new or complex skills.
Review of Educational Research, 61 2 parall, — Your email address will not be published.
Review of Educational Research, 76 11— She commented, When reported in the popular media, medical research often appears as a blunt instrument, able to obliterate skeptics or opponents by the force of its evidence and arguments.
For instance, students may use the concept of area and perimeter to build a flowerbed. Does homework improve academic achievement? The authors focused particularly on the harm to economically disadvantaged students, who are unintentionally penalized because their environments often make it almost impossible to complete assignments at home. Citations Kohn, Alfie In conclusion, research is inconsistent in determining if homework increases student achievement.
Homework or No Homework
To drop the use of homework, then, a school or district would be obliged to identify a practice that produces a similar effect within the confines of the school day without taking away or diminishing the benefits of other academic activities—no easy accomplishment. Most research only supports homework for middle and high school students Cooper a; Kohn Secondly, it reduces the amount of time that children could be spending with their families.
Journal of Research and Development in Education, 31 3aptall Some studies also suggest that assigning homework improves the achievement of low-performing students and students in low-performing schools. Learning to Read English March 15, For example, referring to Harris Cooper, the lead author of the two leading meta-analyses on homework, Kohn noted, A careful reading of Cooper’s own studies.
Connected Teaching Next Next post: Student reflections on parent involvement with homework.